Latch-up and Electrical Overstress
Latch-up is often claimed to cause electrical overstress (see e.g. JESD78A-D). However, considering that (uncontrolled) latch-up is a failure mechanism, whereas electrical overstress is a violation of the absolute maximum ratings of a product, it has to be concluded in contrast that electrical overstress can cause latch-up.
Nevertheless, a latch-up test that violates the absolute maximum ratings of a product is in fact electrical overstress and may very well cause corresponding damage.